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Find everything you need to know about writing and formatting your manuscript for Annals of the ESA, Environmental Entomology, Journal of Economic Entomology, Journal of Insect Science, Journal of Medical Entomology, and American Entomologist.
Order of Elements
Order of elements are as follows: title page; Abstract and key words; introduction (no heading); Materials and Methods; Results; and Discussion (or Results and Discussion); Acknowledgments; References Cited; footnotes; tables; figure legends; and figures.
The introduction should clearly state the basis of your study along with the background of the problem and a statement of purpose. The Materials and Methods section should include a clear and concise description of the study design, experimental execution, materials, and method of statistical analysis. Results should be clearly differentiated from the interpretation of your findings in the Results section or within the Results and Discussion. Cite tables and figures in numerical order as they should appear in the text. Include suggestions for direction of future studies, if appropriate.
The title page should include the name, complete address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of corresponding author.
Include a running head of <65 characters, including author names. Example: Smith and Jones: Biological Control of C. capitata (no period). For more than two authors, use the senior author's name followed by et al. Example: Smith et al.: Biological Control of C. capitata (no period).
Include the section of the journal.
The title should be concise and informative. Include either the ESA approved common name or the scientific name, but not both of the subject. Common names used in the title must be listed in the ESA Common Names of Insects & Related Organisms. Do not include authors of scientific names in the title. Do not capitalize the following words in the title or subheadings: a, an, and, as, at, be, by, for, in, of, on, per, to, the. Insert (Order: Family) immediately after the name of the organism.
Affiliation line includes a complete address. If appropriate, designate current addresses for all authors by numbered footnotes (superscripted numbers) placed at the bottom of the title page. Example:
1Department of Entomology, University of Colorado, 345 East 7th Street, Denver, CO 78095.
Include all authors' names below the title. Footnote numbers are placed outside commas in multi-authored articles.
Abstract. On a separate page, provide an abstract of fewer than 250 words. Give scientific name and authority at first mention of the subject organism. Do not cite references, figures, tables, probability levels, or results. Refer to results only in the general sense.
Keywords. Place three to five key words, separated by commas, on a line below the abstract. Use only singular words/noun. Spell out scientific names (e.g., spell out Aedes albopictus instead of Ae. albopictus). Do not combine different subjects as one key word (e.g., "pesticides and grass," should be two separate keywords, "pesticide, grass." Do not use scientific names and common name at the same time as one key word [e.g., use "coffee, Coffea Arabica" (as 2 key words) instead of coffee (Coffea Arabica).
Optional foreign language abstract: All articles will have an English abstract. However, to encourage international communication, authors may include a second abstract in a language other than English. (Spanish, French, German, Russian, Portuguese, Chinese, or Japanese are accepted.) It is the author's responsibility to provide an accurate, and grammatically correct non-English version. Do not repeat the keywords.
First-level headings are centered and boldfaced on their own line. Initial capital letters. Used to divide the manuscript into major sections (e.g., Materials and Methods, Results).
Second-level headings are flush left, boldface, and are also on their own line with initial capital letters. Second-level headings are rarely used except in taxonomic articles where multilevels of headings may be necessary.)
Third-level headings are boldfaced, paragraph indented, have initial capital letters, and are followed by a period. Third-level headings are used to divide first-level sections into smaller sections.
Fourth-level headings are italicized (but not boldfaced), paragraph indented, have initial capital letters, follow immediately after a third-level heading or start a new paragraph, and are followed by a period. Fourth-level headings are used to divide third-level sections into smaller sections.
(Smith and Jones 1993)
(Smith 1996, Smith et al. 1997, Jones 1998)
Multiple Publications by Same Author(s)
(Smith et al. 1995a, 1995b, 1997; Jones 1996)
(Jones 1988; L. J. Smith, personal communication). Obtain and forward (at submission) a letter of permission to use citations to personal communications (from those other than authors).
(L.J.S., unpublished data) for one author or (unpublished data) for all authors. Obtain and forward (at submission) a letter of permission to use citations to unpublished data (from those other than authors).
(Smith 1997) for in press, cite projected year of publication.
(PROC GLM, SAS Institute 1999) for software user's manual.
In parentheses, provide manufacturer's name and location (city, state) and model number of relevant materials and equipment. Example: (Model 3000, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Use generic names when possible (e.g., self-sealing plastic bags).
All data reported (except for descriptive biology) must be subjected to statistical analysis. Descriptive biology should include information such as sample sizes and number of replications. Authors are responsible for the statistical method selected and for the accuracy of their data. Authors should be able to justify the use of a particular statistical test when requested by an editor. Results of statistical tests may be presented in the text, in tables, and in figures. Statistical methods should be described in Materials and Methods with appropriate references. Experimental designs should also be described fully in Materials and Methods. Descriptions should include information such as sample sizes and number of replications. See specific section in this style guide for suggestions on formatting statistical results. Only t-tests and analyses of variance require no citation. Cite the computer program user's manual in the References Cited.
When presenting results of probit/logit analysis, these columns should be included in tables (in this order, left to right); n, slope + SE, LD (or LC) (95% CL), and chi-square. When a ratio of one LD versus another is given, it should be given with its 95% CI.
Statistical tests to show what model best fits data intended to estimate the 99.9986% level of effectiveness should be presented to justify use of any model, including the probit model. Thus, we do not recommend use of the Probit 9 without tests to show that the probit model fits the data.
When presenting the results of analysis of variance or a t-test, specify F (or t) values, degrees of freedom, and P values. This information may be placed in parentheses in the text. Example: (F = 9.26; df = 4, 26; P < 0.001). If readability of the text is affected by the presence of repeated parenthetical statistical statements, place them in a table.
In regressions, specify the model, define all variables, and provide estimates of variances for parameters and the residual mean-square error. Italicize variables in equations and text.
Include an estimate of the variance and sample size for each mean regardless of the method chosen for unplanned multiple comparisons. The use of Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) is not acceptable as a mean separation test as it is no longer commonly accepted as a method for post hoc mean separation anlysis.
At the beginning of the manuscript, authors should state clearly the goals of their model construction and analysis. Evaluation by reviewers depends upon these goals and the type of model. Authors should attempt to describe the main conclusions, limitations, and sensitivity of results to assumptions. For stochastic models, describe the variability in the results.
The following guidelines pertain to any mathematical model calculated for purposes other than statistical analysis. Authors must adequately describe both model structure and model analysis. Authors must explain and justify original equations and computer programs or justify the selection of a published software package used in the computation of models. Model structure and steps in the analysis must be described in the Materials and Methods section. Without presenting extensive computer code, the text must permit an understanding of the model that would allow most mathematically inclined scientists to duplicate the work. Present all equations that represent the biology of the system being modeled. Unless their derivation is self-evident, show how the equations were derived and mention the underlying assumptions. Express how the equations are solved over time and space. Provide references for standard techniques (e.g., matrix manipulation, integration). Define all variables and parameters in each equation and describe their units (e.g., time, space, and mass). In the Materials and Methods or Results section, present the range of parameter values included in the model, and describe the uncertainty in or range of validity of these values.
Consult Mathematics into Type for correct formatting of equations and mathematical variables. Italicize all mathematical variables. Center more complex equations on a separate line.
R = A barrtype + Blog 10 (f) (2)
Authors must state why the model did not require testing (e.g., theoretical study), why it cannot be tested (e.g., lack of data), or how it was tested. Data used for testing must be independent of data used to build or calibrate the model. Describe the data and procedures in Materials and Methods. Authors should be aware that the testing of models is an important step that should be a part of most studies.
For models solved or simulated by computers, mention the programming language and computer used. Describe the important numerical methods used in calculating the model (e.g., integration and random number generation). Mention how the program's logic and algorithms were tested and verified. When published software is computed, provide a reference and state which procedures were used. Discuss in any section of the manuscript the limitations of the published software. Original computer programs should be made available at the request of reviewers and readers.
Inclusion of a GenBank/EMBL accession number for primary nucleotide and amino acid sequence data is a criterion for the acceptance of a manuscript for publication. Sequences from new species and new genes must indicate the proportion of the gene sequenced and should include data from both strands. The accession number may be included in the original manuscript or the sequence may be provided for review and an accession number provided when the manuscript is revised. A manuscript will not be accepted for publication until the accession number is provided.
GenBank may be contacted at their website at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/submit.html. The EMBL Data Library may be contacted at their website at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/Submission/index.html.
Follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed., for taxonomic style. Center the heading that indicates the name of the taxon in bold type. Center figure numbers in parentheses under the main heading; do not use bold type. Start all synonomies at the left margin with runovers indented. Include authors and date. References must appear in References Cited section. Use telegraphic style throughout descriptions.
For Journal of Medical Entomology Authors only: Please refer to the journal's Policy on Names of Aedine Mosquito Genera and Subgenera if writing about these insects.
Use only acceptable 3rd-level subheadings such as:
Avoid using Description as a subheading.
Use Roman numerals I through XII to designate month of collection. Use arabic numerals 00 through 99 to designate collection years in the 20th century. Do not abbreviate other years, including the 21st century. Express data in this format: day-month (use a Roman numeral)-year. Example: 2-V-97.
Start with the largest area followed by successively smaller areas separated by colons. Capitalize countries. Arrange data for each locality in the following order: count of specimens and sex or stage (as applicable), city or vicinity, date, collector, and depository. Example: MEXICO: Tamaulipas: 1 male, 1 female, Ciudad Mante, 15-III-97, K. Haack; 5 females, Ciudad Victoria, 3-VII-99, C. Hughes, MCZ. Arrange localities alphabetically. Use a semicolon to separate data for different localities. Define depositories in the Materials and Methods.
Start description with the principal type in capital letters. Follow this immediately with count and sex of specimens (use male and female symbols if possible), then place additional data in the order of locality, date, additional data, and collector. Separate these items with commas. Example: HOLOTYPE: 1 male, Locust Grove, VA, 22-X-98, on Cercis canadensis, R. H. Foote. PARATYPES: 2 males, same data.
Voucher specimens of arthropods serve as future reference for published names used in scientific publications. Although the deposition of voucher specimens is not required as a condition for publication, authors are encouraged to deposit specimens in an established, permanent collection and to note in the published article that the expected deposition has been made and its location. Authors should contact the curator of a voucher repository before deposition concerning the procedures required for curation to ensure that the collection will accept the voucher materials. The designation and proper labeling of voucher specimens is the author's responsibility. When available, at least three specimens should be deposited. Each specimen should have the following information provided at the time of deposition:
Standard label data that are required for the specimens collection (i.e., locality, date of collection, collector, host, ecological data, whether the specimen is from a laboratory collection, etc.).
An identification label that includes the identifier and date of identification.
A label that designates the specimen as "voucher."
Place the acknowledgments after the text. Organize acknowledgments in paragraph form in the following order: persons (omit all professional titles and degrees), groups, granting institutions, grant numbers, and serial publication number.
For research articles that involved the use of humans or animals, the Entomological Society of America requires that the following types of notification, as applicable, be included in the acknowledgement section of the article.
Humans. All human subjects work should reference approved Internal Review Board protocols or compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act information policies for their organization, if the protocols are not available.
Animals. All studies should reference an approved Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol or similar documents from their institutions. For trapping/collecting wild animals/birds, reference to collecting permits at the national or state level should be referenced.
Pathogens. Reference should be made to Biological Use Authorization approved by an institutional Environmental Health and Safety committee or similar body.
Sample notification: The collection and infection of wild birds with encephalitis viruses was done under Protocol 11184 approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of California, Davis, California Resident Scientific Collection Permit 801049-02 by the State of California Department of Fish and Game, and Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit No. MB082812-0. Use of arboviruses was approved under Biological Use Authorization #0554 by Environmental Health and Safety of the University of California, Davis, and USDA Permit #47901.
Potential conflicts of interest include any relationships of a financial or personal nature between an author or coauthor and individuals or organizations within three years of submission which, in theory, could affect or bias an author’s scientific judgment, or limit an author’s freedom to publish, analyze, discuss, or interpret relevant data. Sources of financial support originating outside the coauthors’ home institution(s) for any aspect of a study must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section of the paper. Financial support includes not only funding, but gratis provision of materials, services, or equipment. Any additional potential conflicts of interest, not covered in the acknowledgments of financial support, must be revealed to the editor at submission, and disclosed in a statement immediately following the Acknowledgments. If an author or coauthor has entered into an agreement with any entity outside that authors’ home institution, including the home institution of another coauthor, giving that entity veto power over publication of the study or over presentation, analysis, discussion, or interpretation of any results of the study, whether or not such veto power was exercised, this information must be disclosed in a statement immediately following the Acknowledgments. As a suggestion, such a statement could take the following form: “This manuscript is published with the concurrence of [Institution / Company / Individual / etc. X].“ If no potential conflicts of interest exist, this must be stated in the cover letter to the editor at submission.
In the case of submissions to Arthropod Management Tests, in lieu of the above, authors must include, when applicable, the statement, “This research was supported by industry gift(s) of [pesticide and/or research funding].”
Cite only those articles published or formally accepted for publication (in press). Include all references mentioned in text. Include enough information to allow reader to obtain cited material (e.g., book and proceedings citations must include name and location [city and state or country] of publisher).
Abbreviate journal titles according to the most recent issue of BIOSIS Serial Sources. For non-English titled journals that are cited in the references, the title of the journal should be spelled out, and not abbreviated. Systematics-related articles may specify that all serial titles be spelled out for final publication. Citations and References should not be numbered.
References Cited: Alphabetical order (chronological for one author or more than two authors, and alphabetical order [by surname of second author] for two authors)
Evans, M. A. 2000. Article title: subtitle (begin with lowercase after colon
or dash unless first word is a proper noun). J. Abbr. 00:000–000.
Evans, M. A. 2001a. Article title. J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A. 2001b. Article title.J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A., and R. Burns. 2001. Article title. J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A., and A. Tyler. 2001. Article title. J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A., A. Tyler, and H. H. Munro. 2000. Article title. J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A., R. Burns, and A. A. Dunn. 2001. Article title. J. Abbr. 00: 000–000.
Evans, M. A. 2002. Article title. J. Econ. Entomol. (in press).
Burns, R. 2001. Title (initial cap only): subtitle (no initial cap after colon). Publisher, city, state abbreviation or country.
Evans, M. A. 2001. Colorado potato beetle, 2nd ed. Publisher, city, state abbreviation or country.
Tyler, A. 2001. Western corn rootworm, vol. 2. Publisher, city, state abbreviation or country.
Article/Chapter in Book
Tyler, A. 2001. Article or chapter title, pp. 000–000. In T.A.J. Royer and R. B. Burns (eds.), Book title. Publisher, city, state abbreviation or country.
Tyler, A., R.S.T. Smith, and H. Brown. 2001. Onion thrips control, pp. 178–195. In R. S. Green and P. W. White (eds.), Book title, vol. 13. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD.
No Author Given
(USDA) U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2001. Title. USDA, Beltsville, MD.
(IRRI) International Rice Research Institute. 2001. Title. IRRI, City, State or Country.
Harred, J. F., A. R. Knight, and J. S. McIntyre, inventors; Dow Chemical Company,
assignee. 1972 Apr 4. Epoxidation process. U.S. patent 3,654,317.
Martin, P. D., J. Kuhlman, and S. Moore. 2001. Yield effects of
European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) feeding, pp. 345–356.
In Proceedings, 19th Illinois Cooperative Extension Service Spray
School, 24–27 June 1985, Chicago, IL. Publisher, City, State.
Rossignol, P. A. 2001. Parasite modification of mosquito probing
behavior, pp. 25–28. In T. W. Scott and J. Grumstrup-Scott (eds.),
Proceedings, Symposium: the Role of Vector-Host Interactions
in Disease Transmission. National Conference of the Entomological
Society of America,10 December 1985, Hollywood, FL. Miscellaneous
Publication 68. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD.
James, H. 2001. Thesis or dissertation title. M.S. thesis or Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
SAS Institute. 2001. PROC user's manual, version 6th ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Reisen, W. 2001. Title. Complete URL (protocol://host.name/path/file.name) and/or DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Place tables after the References Cited section. Double-space and number all tables. Boldface table title. Do not repeat data already presented in text. If a table continues on more than one page, repeat column headings on subsequent page(s).
Title should be short and descriptive. Boldface table number and title only. Include "means + SEM" in title if applicable. Do not footnote title; use the unlettered first footnote to include general information necessary to understand the table (e.g., define terms, abbreviations, and statistical tests).
Use horizontal lines to separate title from column headings, column headings from data field, and data field from footnotes. Do not use vertical lines to separate columns. All columns must have headings.
Use approved abbreviations. Use abbreviations already defined in the text and define others in the general footnote. Use the following abbreviations in the body or column headings of tables only: amt (amount), avg (average), concn (concentration), diam (diameter), exp (experiment), ht (height), max (maximum), min. (minimum), no. (number), prepn (preparation), temp (temperature), vs (versus), vol (volume), wt (weight). Use the following abbreviations for months: Jan., Feb., Mar., April, May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec.
Repeat operational signs throughout data field. Insert a space on either side of sign (1.42 ± 1.36).
Leave no space between lowercase letters and their preceding values (e.g., 731.2ab).
Use footnotes to define or clarify column headings or specific datum within the data field. Do not footnote the title; use the unlettered first footnote to include general information necessary to understand the table (e.g., define terms, abbreviations, and statistical tests). The use of asterisks is reserved for statistical significance only.
Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05; Student t-test [Abbott 1925]). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; NS, not significant).
Use lowercase italicized superscripted letters to indicate footnotes. Footnote letters should appear in the table in consecutive order, from left to right across the table then down the page.
Figures may be embedded in the manuscript text file for the initial Version 1 submission, but for accepted manuscripts of Version 2 or higher, figures must be attached as separate TIFF, EPS, or PowerPoint files.
For more information on preparing digital figures see the section on Digital Art Preparation.
For review purposes, it is acceptable to include figures, whether in black and white or color, as part of the manuscript file, with each figure on a separate page. Figures should be inserted in the manuscript file in one of the following formats: TIFF, EPS, WMF, or JPEG. GIF formats, such as from websites, are not acceptable and produce poor quality printouts because of low resolution, even for peer review purposes. Charts from Excel and SigmaPlot should not be inserted unless they are in one of the above formats.
Although figures of any size can be submitted, figures that fit exactly the width of 1 column (72 mm) or 2 columns (148 mm) expedite the publication process. Figures should be no longer than 195 mm from top to bottom. Separate parts of the same figure must be grouped together and arranged to use space efficiently. Wherever possible, it is best to avoid using a full page for a set of illustrations. That is, authors should attempt to have each figure appear separately from the others and should consider numbering illustrations as separate figures rather than as multiple parts of the same figure.
When choosing a font size, remember that it should be large enough so that reduction to fit the journal page will not make lettering difficult to read. Final lettering size should be 8 or 9 point using the fonts Arial or Helvetica or Times New Roman or Times Roman. Letter locants on figures composed of more than one element should match those in the text (either upper- or lowercase). Use a scale bar in lieu of magnification, and define scale in the figure caption. Figures will not be relettered nor will flaws be corrected.
Authors are urged to refer to our Digital Art Preparation section for detailed information and specifications for on preparing digital art. Or, contact the publications office at 301-731-4535, ext. 3020 or email@example.com with questions concerning the preparation of artwork.
See the Digital Art Preparation section on how to submit photographs. Remember to scan black and white photos as grayscale and not color. For color photos, use the CMYK color mode, not RGB. Save photos in the TIFF format.
Abbreviations and symbols in figures should match those in the text or be defined in legends.
Type all captions double-spaced on a separate page. All captions should be in paragraph form as shown by the example below.
Fig. 1. Relationship between percentage of defoliation of oak trees and gypsy moth population density. (A) Defoliation and egg mass density. (B) Defoliation of egg density.
Letter locants on figures composed of more than one element should match those in the text (either upper- or lowercase). Do not use equal signs to define abbreviations; use commas (e.g., Ap, barometric pressure).
Supplemental Material may be submitted in the form of one or more (8 maximum) files to accompany the online version of an article. Such material often consists of large tables, data sets, or videos which normally are not possible or convenient to present in print media. Supplemental Material represents substantive information to be posted on the ESA journal website that enhances and enriches the information presented in the main body of a paper. However, the paper must stand on its own without the need for the reader to access the supplemental information to understand and judge the merits of the paper. Any files containing Supplemental Material must be provided at the time of manuscript submission, and will be distributed to reviewers as part of the normal peer-review process. Authors should alert the editor to the presence of Supplementary Material in their cover letter at submission. Once a paper is published, the content of accompanying Supplemental Material files cannot be altered. Although the content of any submitted Supplementary Material is subject to normal peer-review and any changes required by the editor, no copy editing will be performed by the journal’s production staff. Therefore, the authors are responsible for suitable format and final appearance of Supplemental Material after acceptance of the paper.
Supplemental Material should be referenced in the body of the main paper (e.g., Supp. Table S1; Supp. Video S1), where a link will take the online reader to the file. Each supplemental file must be labeled with an appropriate title and prefaced by a short (50 words maximum) summary description of the contents. Within each file, any tables, figures, videos, or other material must be accompanied by an appropriate caption. Citations for any literature referenced within a Supplemental Material file should be listed in a References Cited section at the end of the file, even when a citation is duplicated in the main body of the paper. Videos should be brief (< 5 min) and kept to a reasonable size to facilitate downloading by readers.
Scientific names and authorities must be spelled out (except for Fabricius and Linnaeus, which are abbreviated as F. and L., respectively) the first time a species is mentioned in the abstract and again in the main body of text.
Use only those common names cited in the current ESA Common Names of Insects & Related Organisms online database, or those names approved by the ESA Common Names Committee. Do not use any other common name. Do not abbreviate common names (e.g., CPB for Colorado potato beetle).
Give scientific name and authority at first mention of each organism (including plants) in the abstract and again in the text.
Manuscripts received for publication in ESA periodicals refer to arthropods and the periods of time in their development in various ways. These designations should be used consistently.
Stadium (Plural: Stadia): The period of time between two successive molts.
Stage: One of the successive principal divisions in the life cycle of an arthropod (e.g., egg, nymph, larva, prepupa, pupa, subimago, and adult).
Instar: The arthropod itself between two successive molts. For the purposes of the definition, hatching is considered a molt.
Examples of Usage:
Nymphs feed on the underside of leaves during the first stadium.
Larvae of some dermestids go through an indefinite number of stadia (or have an indefinite number of instars).
The nymphs were reared through the fifth stadium. Immature stages (e.g., eggs, larvae, and pupae; eggs and nymphs) are illustrated.
First instar of cerambycids make galleries in wood.
Some 200 first-instar spiderlings were collected. The predators fed readily on early instars of the face fly.
Do not capitalize the following words in titles or subheadings: a, an, and, as, at, be, by, for, in, of, on, per, to, the.
Use standard abbreviations as listed in the Council of Biology Editors' Scientific Style and Format, The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed., or those listed in this guide. Avoid nonstandard abbreviations.
Use the following abbreviations for time: h (hour), min (minute), s (second), yr (year), mo (month), wk (week), d (day). Do not add "s" to create plurals (e.g., wks).
Use "Fig." if singular and "Figs." if plural (e.g., Fig. 1; Figs. 2 and 3).
When citing dates in the text (not in tables or taxonomic reports), do not abbreviate month, and use this format: 26 January 1997.
Use metric units. English units may follow within parentheses only if they are of direct practical purpose.
Do not abbreviate "liter" by itself or when accompanied by a numeral.
Use "%" only with numerals and in tables and figures. Close up space to numerals (e.g., 50%). Otherwise, use the word percentage (e.g., percentage of defoliation).
Use "per" rather than a slash unless reporting measurements in unit to unit (e.g., insects per branch, not insects/branch; but g/cm2, not g per cm2.
Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence. Spell out the numbers one through nine (10 and up are always used as numerals), unless they are used as units of measure (e.g., eight children, three dogs, 8 g, 3 ft, 0600 hours; NOT 8 children, 3 dogs, eight grams, three feet, or six o'clock am). This includes spelling out the ordinals first through ninth, along with twofold, one-way ANOVA, and one-half. Ordinals from 10 and higher are numerals, such as 10th or 51st. In some cases, such as where there is a long list of items (e.g., 8 flies, 6 mosquitoes, 4 butterflies, and 10 bees), exceptions can be made if the editor concurs. The editorial staff will have flexibility in interpreting the rule.
All numbers <1 must be preceded by a zero (e.g., P < 0.05).
When a number is >1,000, use a comma to separate hundreds from thousands.
Use a semicolon to separate different types of citations (Fig. 4; Table 2).
It is not necessary to repeat symbols or units of measure in a series (e.g., 30, 40, and 60%, respectively).
Avoid footnotes in the text. Use unnumbered footnotes only for disclaimers and animal use information. Place all footnotes on a separate page after References Cited. Examples of footnotes are:
This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the USDA for its use.
In conducting the research described in this report, the investigators adhered to the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," as promulgated by the Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. The facilities are fully accredited by the American Association of Laboratory Animal Care.